The mission of the International Myopia Institute is to advance research, patient management and education in myopia to prevent future vision impairment and blindness associated with increasing myopia. We aim to do this by bringing together, but not limited to scientists, clinicians, policy makers, government and educators into the field of myopia to stimulate collaboration and sharing of knowledge.
The International Myopia Institute are a global group of experts who have come together to discuss, debate and make available the latest evidence based recommendations in classifications, patient management, and research, in the form of the IMI white papers. The IMI white papers and clinical summaries are made freely available in many world languages so that the evidence can be disseminated to all corners of the world and to those that would benefit the most – practitioners, governments, policy makers, educators and the general public.
This report details evidence-based best practice for myopia management, including risk factor identification, the examination process, selection of treatment strategies and guidelines for ongoing management. Practitioner considerations such as gaining informed consent and patient and parent communication are detailed.
This reports shows the definition and complications of pathological myopia. Pathologic myopia is a major cause of visual impairment worldwide. Pathologic myopia is distinctly different from high myopia. High myopia is a high degree of myopic refractive error, whereas pathologic myopia is defined by a presence of typical complications in the fundus.
The prevalence of myopia has markedly increased in East and Southeast Asia, and pathologic consequences of myopia, including myopic maculopathy and high myopia-associated optic neuropathy, are now one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness. Hence, strategies are warranted to reduce the prevalence of myopia and the progression to high myopia as this is the main modifiable risk factor for pathologic myopia.
The role of accommodation and binocular vision in myopia development and progression is not fully understood. More recently, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in accommodation and the consequent changes in ocular structures such as the ciliary body and choroid has expanded with high resolution non-invasive imaging techniques.
The prevalence of myopia and high myopia has been increasing in many parts of the world, in particular East and South East Asia. Genetics alone cannot explain the dramatic change over the last fifty years and environmental risk factors have a key role in myopia development and progression.
This report describes and reviews the major contributions that experimental models of myopia have made to the current knowledge surrounding emmetropization, and development of myopia. These studies established many important concepts informing our knowledge of the visual regulation of eye growth and refractive development and provide the evidence and scientific foundation for the current treatment strategies for myopia.
Myopia is widely recognized as a significant public health issue that has been shown to be a significant cause of visual loss and a risk factor for a range of other serious ocular conditions. The prevalence of this condition is increasing on a global basis, for reasons that are still not understood. Although partial reductions in progression rates have been observed from pharmacological therapies, optical treatments and behavioral modifications, we are a long way from being able to reverse the temporal trends of the last few decades.
Myopia is a global health issue affecting almost 30% of the world’s population. By 2050, the prevalence is predicted to rise to 50% globally, 10% of which will be at highly myopic levels (worse than –5.00 D). There is a need to prevent and manage myopia using evidence-based interventions available today given the impact of myopia on individuals and society.
This report details the current genetic findings in myopia and the future research directions. Both genetic and environmental factors can govern common refractive error, especially myopia. The identified genes have a wide variety of functions, and all retinal layers appear to be sites of expression, with roles in in synaptic transmission, cell-cell adhesion, calcium ion binding, cation channel activity, and extra-cellular matrix components.
This Report discusses the ethical considerations associated with the development and prescription of treatment intended for myopia control, based on the critical review of the literature and guidance documents. Recommendations to regulatory bodies, manufacturers, academics and clinicians in the use of products for myopia control are summarized.