IMI 2021 Yearly Digest

Taskforce Chair

Taskforce Members

  • Jost B. Jonas
  • James S. Wolffsohn
  • David A. Berntsen
  • Pauline Cho
  • Danielle Clarkson-Townsend
  • Daniel I. Flitcroft
  • Kate L. Gifford
  • Annechien E. G. Haarman
  • Machelle T. Pardue
  • Kathryn Richdale
  • Padmaja Sankaridurg
  • Milly S. Tedja
  • Christine F. Wildsoet
  • Joan E. Bailey-Wilson
  • Jeremy A. Guggenheim
  • Christopher J. Hammond
  • Jaakko Kaprio
  • Stuart MacGregor
  • David A. Mackey
  • Anthony M. Musolf
  • Caroline C. W. Klaver
  • Virginie J. M. Verhoeven
  • Veronique Vitart
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Available Languages

This IMI Clinical Summary is also available for download in the following languages:


Purpose: The International Myopia Institute (IMI) Yearly Digest highlights new research considered to be of importance since the publication of the first series of IMI white papers.

Methods: A literature search was conducted for articles on myopia between 2019 and mid-2020 to inform definitions and classifications, experimental models, genetics, interventions, clinical trials, and clinical management. Conference abstracts from key meetings in the same period were also considered.

Results: One thousand articles on myopia have been published between 2019 and mid-2020. Key advances include the use of the definition of premyopia in studies currently under way to test interventions in myopia, new definitions in the field of pathologic myopia, the role of new pharmacologic treatments in experimental models such as intraocular pressure–lowering latanoprost, a large meta-analysis of refractive error identifying 336 new genetic loci, new clinical interventions such as the defocus incorporated multisegment spectacles and combination therapy with low-dose atropine and orthokeratology (OK), normative standards in refractive error, the ethical dilemma of a placebo control group when myopia control treatments are established, reporting the physical metric of myopia reduction versus a percentage reduction, comparison of the risk of pediatric OK wear with risk of vision impairment in myopia, the justification of preventing myopic and axial length increase versus quality of life, and future vision loss.

Conclusions: Large amounts of research in myopia have been published since the IMI 2019 white papers were released. The yearly digest serves to highlight the latest research and advances in myopia.


IMI White paper

The IMI White Paper for “IMI 2021 Yearly Digest” is also available for download below:

Monica Jong, Jost B. Jonas, James S. Wolffsohn, David A. Berntsen, Pauline Cho, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Daniel I. Flitcroft, Kate L. Gifford, Annechien E. G. Haarman, Machelle T. Pardue, Kathryn Richdale, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Milly S. Tedja, Christine F. Wildsoet, Joan E. Bailey-Wilson, Jeremy A. Guggenheim, Christopher J. Hammond, Jaakko Kaprio, Stuart MacGregor, David A. Mackey, Anthony M. Musolf, Caroline C. W. Klaver, Virginie J. M. Verhoeven, Veronique Vitart, Earl L. Smith; IMI 2021 Yearly Digest. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(5):7. doi: