Myopia is a major public health problem, particularly in East Asia. In this summary report, we present key findings and recommendations on strategies for myopia control discussed during the meeting jointly organised by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness and BHVI.


Dr Monica Jong, Executive Director of IMI talks about what’s next for the International Myopia Institute, the plans for 2020 and beyond, the new white papers and what the founder, the late Professor Brien Holden would want the year of good vision 2020 to be about.


This is the official slide deck of the key findings of IMI white papers with the overarching aims of the IMI in providing evidence-based information for practitioners, policy-makers and researchers in the multi-disciplinary area of myopia, for the purposes of advocacy and education.


Everyone, if they live long enough, will experience at least one eye condition in their lifetime that will require appropriate care. Globally, at least 2.2 billion people have a vision impairment or blindness, of whom at least 1 billion have a vision impairment that could have been prevented or has yet to be addressed.

Tens of millions have a severe vision impairment and could benefit from rehabilitation which they are not currently receiving. The burden of eye conditions and vision impairment is not borne equally: it is often far greater in low- and middle-income countries, among older people and in women, and in rural and disadvantaged communities.


At the recent International Myopia Conference in Tokyo, our International Myopia Institute Chair Prof. Serge Resnikoff spoke about the global impact of Myopia, to hear his insights click below.


In March 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) held a Global Scientific Meeting on Myopia at the Brien Holden Vision Institute in Sydney, Australia, to address the public health issue of myopia, the classification of myopia, evidence for treatments, and the need to take action.

The meeting, which brought together myopia experts from each WHO region, was the culmination of a joint effort between the Brien Holden Vision Institute and the WHO, with the support of the former Australian Minister for Health, Mr Peter Dutton, and funded by the Vision Cooperative Research Centre.

In October, 2016, the WHO released the report “The impact of myopia and high myopia”, based on the meeting.

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  • Holden, B. A., T. R. Fricke, D. A. Wilson, M. Jong, K. S. Naidoo, P. Sankaridurg, T. Y. Wong, T. J. Naduvilath and S. Resnikoff (2016). “Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050.” Ophthalmology 123(5): 1036-1042.
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  • Sankaridurg, P. R. and B. A. Holden (2014). “Practical applications to modify and control the development of ametropia.” Eye (Lond) 28(2): 134-141.
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  • Smith, E. L., 3rd, L. F. Hung and J. Huang (2012). “Protective effects of high ambient lighting on the development of form-deprivation myopia in rhesus monkeys.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(1): 421-428.
  • Smith, T. S., K. D. Frick, B. A. Holden, T. R. Fricke and K. S. Naidoo (2009). “Potential lost productivity resulting from the global burden of uncorrected refractive error.” Bull World Health Organ 87(6): 431-437.
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  • Zadnik, K., L. T. Sinnott, S. A. Cotter, L. A. Jones-Jordan, R. N. Kleinstein, R. E. Manny, J. D. Twelker, D. O. Mutti, E. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of and G. Refractive Error Study (2015). “Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia.” JAMA Ophthalmol 133(6): 683-689.
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  • Aller, T. A. and C. Wildsoet (2006). “Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression.” Ophthal Physiol Opt 26(6).
  • Anstice, N. S. and J. R. Phillips (2011). “Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children.” Ophthalmology 118(6): 1152-1161.
  • Bakaraju, R., P. Xu, X. Chen, M. Ma, S. Song, M. Jong, W. Li, S. Resnikoff and B. A. Holden (2015). Extended depth-of-focus contact lenses can slow the rate of progression of myopia. Association for research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Denver.
  • Berntsen, D. A., L. T. Sinnott, D. O. Mutti and K. Zadnik (2012). “A randomized trial using progressive addition lenses to evaluate theories of myopia progression in children with a high lag of accommodation.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(2): 640-649.
  • Bullimore, M. A., L. T. Sinnott and L. A. Jones-Jordan (2013). “The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses.” Optom Vis Sci 90(9): 937-944.
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  • Hasebe, S., J. Jun and S. R. Varnas (2014). “Myopia control with positively aspherized progressive addition lenses: a 2-year, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55(11): 7177-7188.
  • Hiraoka, T., T. Kakita, F. Okamoto, H. Takahashi and T. Oshika (2012). “Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(7): 3913-3919.
  • Holden, A. B., P. Sankaridurg, P. L. De la Jara, T. Naduvilath, A. Ho, D. F. Sweeney, M. Markoulli, E. L. Smith and J. Ge (2012). Decreasing Peripheral Hyperopia With Distance-centre Relatively-plus Powered Periphery Contact Lenses Reduced The Rate Of Progress Of Myopia: A 5 Year Vision Crc Study. Association for research in vision and ophthalmology. Fort Lauderdale.
  • Jones-Jordan, L. A., L. T. Sinnott, S. A. Cotter, R. N. Kleinstein, R. E. Manny, D. O. Mutti, J. D. Twelker, K. Zadnik and C. S. Group (2012). “Time outdoors, visual activity, and myopia progression in juvenile-onset myopes.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(11): 7169-7175.
  • Kakita, T., T. Hiraoka and T. Oshika (2011). “Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(5): 2170-2174.
  • Lam, C. S., W. C. Tang, D. Y. Tse, Y. Y. Tang and C. H. To (2014). “Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial.” Br J Ophthalmol 98(1): 40-45.
  • Li, L., P. Sankaridurg, T. Naduvilath, X. Chen, Z. Lin and B. Holden (2013). “What is the ‘real’baseline for the rate of progress of myopia for a child? The rate of progress of myopia with and without spectacle vision correction.” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 54(15): 5718-5718.
  • Li, S. M., S. Y. Li, L. R. Liu, J. Y. Guo, W. Chen, N. L. Wang and M. Millodot (2013). “Full correction and Undercorrection of Myopia Evaluation Trial: design and baseline data of a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 41(4): 329-338.
  • Rose, K. A., A. N. French and I. G. Morgan (2016). “Environmental Factors and Myopia: Paradoxes and Prospects for Prevention.” The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology 5(6): 403-410.
  • Sankaridurg, P., L. Donovan, S. Varnas, A. Ho, X. Chen, A. Martinez, S. Fisher, Z. Lin, E. L. Smith, 3rd, J. Ge and B. Holden (2010). “Spectacle lenses designed to reduce progression of myopia: 12-month results.” Optom Vis Sci 87(9): 631-641.
  • Sankaridurg, P., B. Holden, E. Smith, 3rd, T. Naduvilath, X. Chen, P. L. de la Jara, A. Martinez, J. Kwan, A. Ho, K. Frick and J. Ge (2011). “Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(13): 9362-9367.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido, J., C. Villa-Collar, B. Gilmartin and R. Gutierrez-Ortega (2012). “Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain: refractive and biometric changes.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(8): 5060-5065.
  • Stapleton, F., L. Keay, K. Edwards, T. Naduvilath, J. K. Dart, G. Brian and B. A. Holden (2008). “The incidence of contact lens–related microbial keratitis in Australia.” Ophthalmology 115(10): 1655-1662.
  • Vasudevan, B., C. Esposito, C. Peterson, C. Coronado and K. J. Ciuffreda (2014). “Under-correction of human myopia–is it myopigenic?: a retrospective analysis of clinical refraction data.” J Optom 7(3): 147-152.
  • Walline, J. J., K. L. Greiner, M. E. McVey and L. A. Jones-Jordan (2013). “Multifocal contact lens myopia control.” Optom Vis Sci 90(11): 1207-1214.
  • Walline, J. J., S. Long and K. Zadnik (2004). “Daily disposable contact lens wear in myopic children.” Optom Vis Sci 81(4): 255-259.
  • Wu, P. C., C. L. Tsai, H. L. Wu, Y. H. Yang and H. K. Kuo (2013). “Outdoor activity during class recess reduces myopia onset and progression in school children.” Ophthalmology 120(5): 1080-1085.
  • Yang, Z., W. Lan, J. Ge, W. Liu, X. Chen, L. Chen and M. Yu (2009). “The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children.” Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 29(1): 41-48.
  • Zhu, M. J., H. Y. Feng, X. G. He, H. D. Zou and J. F. Zhu (2014). “The control effect of orthokeratology on axial length elongation in Chinese children with myopia.” BMC Ophthalmol 14: 141.
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