IMI Facts and Findings Infographic

The IMI Facts and Findings Infographic is a useful public health communication tool and chairside reference of key myopia management evidence-based information easily accessed by practitioners.

IMI 2021 White Papers reviewed in Franja Visual

We want to thank our Ambassadors Edgar Davila-Garcia and Ariolfo Vazquez who are a part of Group Manejo Miopia Latam, for publishing IMI 2021 white paper reviews in Spanish in Franja Visual. You can download the first of the review series here.


Thank you to Gabi Steenbekkers and platinum sponsor CooperVision for this collated version of dutch clinical summaries translations of the 2021 IMI White Papers.

IMI 2021 AAO Meeting

The IMI hosted a very successful session at the American Academy of Optometry in Boston last November introducing the key findings of the IMI 2021 White Papers.

The session was chaired by Professor Christine Wildsoet. IMI Taskforce members Professors Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Jeffrey J. Walline, Lisa Ostrin, Fuensanta Vera-Diaz, Maria Liu and Christine Wildsoet discussed the latest findings in the myopia field. Paediatric ophthalmologist Dr Vicky Chen from Tufts University School of Medicine joined the in-depth panel discussion followed the session.

IMI 2021 ARVO Meeting

A recording of the first meeting introducing the key findings of the IMI 2021 White Papers at the ARVO 2021 May Virtual Meeting, with a focussed panel discussion on what the implications are for clinical practice and myopia research.

IMI 2021 taskforces leaders Professors Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Jost B. Jonas, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Nicola Logan and Ian Morgan discussed the areas of pathologic myopia, prevention of myopia and its progression, impact of myopia, accommodation and binocular vision in myopia development and progression, and environmental risk factors in myopia. The session was chaired by Dr Monica Jong and Professor James Wolffsohn.

Greek Translated IMI 2019 & 2021 Reports in 'Modern Optical'

Our friends at ‘Modern Optical’ (Σύγχρονη Οπτική) have translated the IMI 2019 and IMI 2021 Clinical Summaries into Greek, published in issues 25 and 26 of their opticians magazine. Download the the translations here.


Myopia is a major public health problem, particularly in East Asia. In this summary report, we present key findings and recommendations on strategies for myopia control discussed during the meeting jointly organised by the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness and BHVI.


Dr Monica Jong, Executive Director of IMI talks about what’s next for the International Myopia Institute, the plans for 2020 and beyond, the new white papers and what the founder, the late Professor Brien Holden would want the year of good vision 2020 to be about.

Key findings of imi 2019 white papers

This is the official slide deck of the key findings of IMI white papers with the overarching aims of the IMI in providing evidence-based information for practitioners, policy-makers and researchers in the multi-disciplinary area of myopia, for the purposes of advocacy and education.


Everyone, if they live long enough, will experience at least one eye condition in their lifetime that will require appropriate care. Globally, at least 2.2 billion people have a vision impairment or blindness, of whom at least 1 billion have a vision impairment that could have been prevented or has yet to be addressed.

Tens of millions have a severe vision impairment and could benefit from rehabilitation which they are not currently receiving. The burden of eye conditions and vision impairment is not borne equally: it is often far greater in low- and middle-income countries, among older people and in women, and in rural and disadvantaged communities.


At the recent International Myopia Conference in Tokyo, our International Myopia Institute Chair Prof. Serge Resnikoff spoke about the global impact of Myopia, to hear his insights click below.


In March 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) held a Global Scientific Meeting on Myopia at the Brien Holden Vision Institute in Sydney, Australia, to address the public health issue of myopia, the classification of myopia, evidence for treatments, and the need to take action.

The meeting, which brought together myopia experts from each WHO region, was the culmination of a joint effort between the Brien Holden Vision Institute and the WHO, with the support of the former Australian Minister for Health, Mr Peter Dutton, and funded by the Vision Cooperative Research Centre.

In October, 2016, the WHO released the report “The impact of myopia and high myopia”, based on the meeting.

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  • Charman, W. N. (2011). “Myopia, posture and the visual environment.” Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 31(5): 494-501.
  • Cohen, Y., E. Peleg, M. Belkin, U. Polat and A. S. Solomon (2012). “Ambient illuminance, retinal dopamine release and refractive development in chicks.” Exp Eye Res 103: 33-40.
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  • Holden, B. A., T. R. Fricke, D. A. Wilson, M. Jong, K. S. Naidoo, P. Sankaridurg, T. Y. Wong, T. J. Naduvilath and S. Resnikoff (2016). “Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050.” Ophthalmology 123(5): 1036-1042.
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  • Liang, Y. B., D. S. Friedman, T. Y. Wong, S. Y. Zhan, L. P. Sun, J. J. Wang, X. R. Duan, X. H. Yang, F. H. Wang and Q. Zhou (2008). “Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study.” Ophthalmology 115(11): 1965-1972. e1961.
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  • Mehari, Z. A. and A. W. Yimer (2013). “Prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in rural central Ethiopia.” Clinical and Experimental Optometry 96(1): 65-69.
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  • Mutti, D. O., G. L. Mitchell, M. L. Moeschberger, L. A. Jones and K. Zadnik (2002). “Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children’s refractive error.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43(12): 3633-3640.
  • O’Donoghue, L., J. F. Mcclelland, N. S. Logan, A. R. Rudnicka, C. G. Owen and K. J. Saunders (2010). “Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in Northern Ireland.” British Journal of Ophthalmology 94(9): 1155-1159.
  • Pan, C.-W., D.-J. Qian and S.-M. Saw (2017). “Time outdoors, blood vitamin D status and myopia: a review.” Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences.
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  • Quek, T. P., C. G. Chua, C. S. Chong, J. H. Chong, H. W. Hey, J. Lee, Y. F. Lim and S. M. Saw (2004). “Prevalence of refractive errors in teenage high school students in Singapore.” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 24(1): 47-55.
  • Rodriguez-Abrego, G. and H. Sotelo-Duenas (2008). “Myopia prevalence among school-age children in a suburban population.” Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social 47(1): 39-44.
  • Rose, K. A., I. G. Morgan, J. Ip, A. Kifley, S. Huynh, W. Smith and P. Mitchell (2008). “Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children.” Ophthalmology 115(8): 1279-1285.
  • Sankaridurg, P. R. and B. A. Holden (2014). “Practical applications to modify and control the development of ametropia.” Eye (Lond) 28(2): 134-141.
  • Saw, S. M. (2003). “A synopsis of the prevalence rates and environmental risk factors for myopia.” Clinical and Experimental Optometry 86(5): 289-294.
  • Saw, S. M., G. Gazzard, E. C. Shih‐Yen and W. H. Chua (2005). “Myopia and associated pathological complications.” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 25(5): 381-391.
  • Smith, E. L., 3rd, L. F. Hung and J. Huang (2012). “Protective effects of high ambient lighting on the development of form-deprivation myopia in rhesus monkeys.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(1): 421-428.
  • Smith, T. S., K. D. Frick, B. A. Holden, T. R. Fricke and K. S. Naidoo (2009). “Potential lost productivity resulting from the global burden of uncorrected refractive error.” Bull World Health Organ 87(6): 431-437.
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  • Verhoeven, V. J. et al (2013). “Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia.” Nat Genet 45(3): 314-318.
  • Verhoeven, V. J., K. T. Wong, G. H. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, J. R. Vingerling and C. C. Klaver (2015). “Visual consequences of refractive errors in the general population.” Ophthalmology 122(1): 101-109.
  • Vitale, S., R. D. Sperduto and F. L. Ferris (2009). “Increased prevalence of myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004.” Archives of ophthalmology 127(12): 1632-1639.
  • Wedner, S., D. Ross, J. Todd, A. Anemona, R. Balira and A. Foster (2002). “Myopia in secondary school students in Mwanza City, Tanzania: the need for a national screening programme.” British Journal of Ophthalmology 86(11): 1200-1206.
  • Weiss, S. and F. Schaeffel (1993). “Diurnal growth rhythms in the chicken eye: relation to myopia development and retinal dopamine levels.” J Comp Physiol A 172(3): 263-270.
  • Weizhong, L., Y. Zhikuan, L. Wen, C. Xiang and G. Jian (2008). “A longitudinal study on the relationship between myopia development and near accommodation lag in myopic children.” Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 28(1): 57-61.
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  • Wu, L., X. Sun, X. Zhou and C. Weng (2011). “Causes and 3-year-incidence of blindness in Jing-An District, Shanghai, China 2001-2009.” BMC Ophthalmol 11: 10.
  • Xu, L., Y. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Wang, T. Cui, J. Li and J. B. Jonas (2006). “Causes of blindness and visual impairment in urban and rural areas in Beijing: the Beijing Eye Study.” Ophthalmology 113(7): 1134 e1131-1111.
  • You, Q. S., L. J. Wu, J. L. Duan, Y. X. Luo, L. J. Liu, X. Li, Q. Gao, W. Wang, L. Xu and J. B. Jonas (2014). “Prevalence of myopia in school children in greater Beijing: the Beijing Childhood Eye Study.” Acta ophthalmologica 92(5): e398-e406.
  • Younan, C., P. Mitchell, R. G. Cumming, E. Rochtchina and J. J. Wang (2002). “Myopia and incident cataract and cataract surgery: the blue mountains eye study.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43(12): 3625-3632.
  • Chua, W. H., V. Balakrishnan, Y. H. Chan, L. Tong, Y. Ling, B. L. Quah and D. Tan (2006). “Atropine for the treatment of childhood myopia.” Ophthalmology 113(12): 2285-2291.
  • Guggenheim, J. A., R. Pong-Wong, C. S. Haley, G. Gazzard and S. M. Saw (2007). “Correlations in refractive errors between siblings in the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk factors for Myopia.” Br J Ophthalmol 91(6): 781-784.
  • Ojaimi, E, et al. “Distribution of ocular biometric parameters and refraction in a population-based study of Australian children.” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 46.8 (2005): 2748-2754.
  • Saw, S. M., F. J. Nieto, J. Katz, O. D. Schein, B. Levy and S. J. Chew (2001). “Familial clustering and myopia progression in Singapore school children.” Ophthalmic Epidemiol 8(4): 227-236.
  • Walline, J. J. (2016). “Myopia control: a review.” Eye & contact lens 42(1): 3-8.
  • Zadnik, K., L. T. Sinnott, S. A. Cotter, L. A. Jones-Jordan, R. N. Kleinstein, R. E. Manny, J. D. Twelker, D. O. Mutti, E. Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of and G. Refractive Error Study (2015). “Prediction of Juvenile-Onset Myopia.” JAMA Ophthalmol 133(6): 683-689.
  • Adler, D. and M. Millodot (2006). “The possible effect of undercorrection on myopic progression in children.” Clin Exp Optom 89(5): 315-321.
  • Aller, T. A. and C. Wildsoet (2006). “Results of a one-year prospective clinical trial (CONTROL) of the use of bifocal soft contact lenses to control myopia progression.” Ophthal Physiol Opt 26(6).
  • Anstice, N. S. and J. R. Phillips (2011). “Effect of dual-focus soft contact lens wear on axial myopia progression in children.” Ophthalmology 118(6): 1152-1161.
  • Bakaraju, R., P. Xu, X. Chen, M. Ma, S. Song, M. Jong, W. Li, S. Resnikoff and B. A. Holden (2015). Extended depth-of-focus contact lenses can slow the rate of progression of myopia. Association for research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Denver.
  • Berntsen, D. A., L. T. Sinnott, D. O. Mutti and K. Zadnik (2012). “A randomized trial using progressive addition lenses to evaluate theories of myopia progression in children with a high lag of accommodation.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(2): 640-649.
  • Bullimore, M. A., L. T. Sinnott and L. A. Jones-Jordan (2013). “The risk of microbial keratitis with overnight corneal reshaping lenses.” Optom Vis Sci 90(9): 937-944.
  • Cheng, D., G. C. Woo, B. Drobe and K. L. Schmid (2014). “Effect of bifocal and prismatic bifocal spectacles on myopia progression in children: three-year results of a randomized clinical trial.” JAMA Ophthalmol 132(3): 258-264.
  • Chia, A., Q. S. Lu and D. Tan (2016). “Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2: Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops.” Ophthalmology 123(2): 391-399.
  • Cho, P. and S. W. Cheung (2012). “Retardation of myopia in Orthokeratology (ROMIO) study: a 2-year randomized clinical trial.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(11): 7077-7085.
  • Cho, P., S. W. Cheung and M. Edwards (2005). “The longitudinal orthokeratology research in children (LORIC) in Hong Kong: a pilot study on refractive changes and myopic control.” Curr Eye Res 30(1): 71-80.
  • Chung, K., N. Mohidin and D. J. O’Leary (2002). “Undercorrection of myopia enhances rather than inhibits myopia progression.” Vision Res 42(22): 2555-2559.
  • Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial 2 Study Group for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator, G. (2011). “Progressive-addition lenses versus single-vision lenses for slowing progression of myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(5): 2749-2757.
  • Edwards, M. H., R. W.-H. Li, C. S.-Y. Lam, J. K.-F. Lew and B. S.-Y. Yu (2002). “The Hong Kong progressive lens myopia control study: study design and main findings.” Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 43(9): 2852-2858.
  • Fang, Y. T., Y. J. Chou, C. Pu, P. J. Lin, T. L. Liu, N. Huang and P. Chou (2013). “Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study.” Eye (Lond) 27(3): 418-424.
  • Gwiazda, J., L. Hyman, M. Hussein, D. Everett, T. T. Norton, D. Kurtz, M. C. Leske, R. Manny, W. Marsh-Tootle and M. Scheiman (2003). “A randomized clinical trial of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on the progression of myopia in children.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44(4): 1492-1500.
  • Hasebe, S., J. Jun and S. R. Varnas (2014). “Myopia control with positively aspherized progressive addition lenses: a 2-year, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55(11): 7177-7188.
  • Hiraoka, T., T. Kakita, F. Okamoto, H. Takahashi and T. Oshika (2012). “Long-term effect of overnight orthokeratology on axial length elongation in childhood myopia: a 5-year follow-up study.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(7): 3913-3919.
  • Holden, A. B., P. Sankaridurg, P. L. De la Jara, T. Naduvilath, A. Ho, D. F. Sweeney, M. Markoulli, E. L. Smith and J. Ge (2012). Decreasing Peripheral Hyperopia With Distance-centre Relatively-plus Powered Periphery Contact Lenses Reduced The Rate Of Progress Of Myopia: A 5 Year Vision Crc Study. Association for research in vision and ophthalmology. Fort Lauderdale.
  • Jones-Jordan, L. A., L. T. Sinnott, S. A. Cotter, R. N. Kleinstein, R. E. Manny, D. O. Mutti, J. D. Twelker, K. Zadnik and C. S. Group (2012). “Time outdoors, visual activity, and myopia progression in juvenile-onset myopes.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(11): 7169-7175.
  • Kakita, T., T. Hiraoka and T. Oshika (2011). “Influence of overnight orthokeratology on axial elongation in childhood myopia.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(5): 2170-2174.
  • Lam, C. S., W. C. Tang, D. Y. Tse, Y. Y. Tang and C. H. To (2014). “Defocus Incorporated Soft Contact (DISC) lens slows myopia progression in Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren: a 2-year randomised clinical trial.” Br J Ophthalmol 98(1): 40-45.
  • Li, L., P. Sankaridurg, T. Naduvilath, X. Chen, Z. Lin and B. Holden (2013). “What is the ‘real’baseline for the rate of progress of myopia for a child? The rate of progress of myopia with and without spectacle vision correction.” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 54(15): 5718-5718.
  • Li, S. M., S. Y. Li, L. R. Liu, J. Y. Guo, W. Chen, N. L. Wang and M. Millodot (2013). “Full correction and Undercorrection of Myopia Evaluation Trial: design and baseline data of a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.” Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 41(4): 329-338.
  • Rose, K. A., A. N. French and I. G. Morgan (2016). “Environmental Factors and Myopia: Paradoxes and Prospects for Prevention.” The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology 5(6): 403-410.
  • Sankaridurg, P., L. Donovan, S. Varnas, A. Ho, X. Chen, A. Martinez, S. Fisher, Z. Lin, E. L. Smith, 3rd, J. Ge and B. Holden (2010). “Spectacle lenses designed to reduce progression of myopia: 12-month results.” Optom Vis Sci 87(9): 631-641.
  • Sankaridurg, P., B. Holden, E. Smith, 3rd, T. Naduvilath, X. Chen, P. L. de la Jara, A. Martinez, J. Kwan, A. Ho, K. Frick and J. Ge (2011). “Decrease in rate of myopia progression with a contact lens designed to reduce relative peripheral hyperopia: one-year results.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(13): 9362-9367.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido, J., C. Villa-Collar, B. Gilmartin and R. Gutierrez-Ortega (2012). “Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain: refractive and biometric changes.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(8): 5060-5065.
  • Stapleton, F., L. Keay, K. Edwards, T. Naduvilath, J. K. Dart, G. Brian and B. A. Holden (2008). “The incidence of contact lens–related microbial keratitis in Australia.” Ophthalmology 115(10): 1655-1662.
  • Vasudevan, B., C. Esposito, C. Peterson, C. Coronado and K. J. Ciuffreda (2014). “Under-correction of human myopia–is it myopigenic?: a retrospective analysis of clinical refraction data.” J Optom 7(3): 147-152.
  • Walline, J. J., K. L. Greiner, M. E. McVey and L. A. Jones-Jordan (2013). “Multifocal contact lens myopia control.” Optom Vis Sci 90(11): 1207-1214.
  • Walline, J. J., S. Long and K. Zadnik (2004). “Daily disposable contact lens wear in myopic children.” Optom Vis Sci 81(4): 255-259.
  • Wu, P. C., C. L. Tsai, H. L. Wu, Y. H. Yang and H. K. Kuo (2013). “Outdoor activity during class recess reduces myopia onset and progression in school children.” Ophthalmology 120(5): 1080-1085.
  • Yang, Z., W. Lan, J. Ge, W. Liu, X. Chen, L. Chen and M. Yu (2009). “The effectiveness of progressive addition lenses on the progression of myopia in Chinese children.” Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 29(1): 41-48.
  • Zhu, M. J., H. Y. Feng, X. G. He, H. D. Zou and J. F. Zhu (2014). “The control effect of orthokeratology on axial length elongation in Chinese children with myopia.” BMC Ophthalmol 14: 141.
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