IMI 2023 White Papers Introduction

IMI Clinical Summary

Taskforce Chair

Taskforce Members

  • James S. Wolffsohn
  • Padmaja Sankaridurg
  • Jost B. Jonas
  • Mark A. Bullimore
  • Ian Flitcroft
  • Lisa A. Ostrin
  • Christine Wildsoet
  • Serge Resnikoff
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Available Languages

This IMI Clinical Summary is also available for download in the following languages:

IMI white papers are published in response to the growing need for consensus and clinical management guidance on the ever growing, and sometimes conflicting, evidence base around myopia development and management. Consolidation, consensus, and updates on all the latest evidence in the form of these white papers is an important resource for practicing clinicians who may not have the time and resources available to sift through the ever evolving and growing body of evidence to understand how the most recent findings translate to clinical practice and how to implement the most appropriate and effective treatment strategies. All IMI articles and associated infographics that are freely available serve as tools to help with this process. By highlighting gaps in our current knowledge, they also provide a guide for ongoing and future research.

This third series of white papers published in 2023 highlights key areas of myopia research and management which have been gaining interest. These include:

  • Evidence around onset, progression, and management of myopia in the less typically reported and researched populations:
    • young adults
    • pediatric (infant and pre-school children less than 5 years of age)
  • Emerging evidence for roles of the choroid in both myopia development and myopia control. The growing evidence in this field warrants further attention, particularly for clinicians who may be grappling to understand how research findings might translate to clinical practice.
  • A thorough characterization of non-pathological ocular changes in myopia which may help researchers to further elucidate the mechanism of axial elongation and better understand associated secondary pathologies

In addition, a report on the results of an international survey of practitioners on myopia management attitudes and strategies in clinical practice is included. This paper reflects on how practices and attitudes regarding myopia management may have changed over the past decade based on other similar, previously published survey results. The latest results indicate that single vision spectacles and contact lenses are still the most prescribed methods of correction, although clinical activities related to myopia management, including the prescription of myopia control devices and therapies, appear to be increasing. More needs to be done to establish myopia control as the standard of care for progressive myopia around the world.

To help stakeholders keep up to date with this fast-moving field, new findings across some of the key topics in myopia research since the 2019 digest have been reviewed by experts and summarized as the IMI 2023 digest.

By 2050, it is predicted that almost half of the global population will be myopic, with 10% at levels worse than −5.00 diopters and hence at greater risk of sight-threatening complications and visual impairment. Every diopter matters and hence every clinician should be supported and encouraged to introduce evidence-based myopia management to improve the quality of life and well-being of their patients, their families, communities, and the broader society. We commend all those who are striving to make this change and thank all those who have contributed to these efforts. We also invite all who are willing and interested to join the IMI in these efforts.



A full list of the IMI taskforce members and the complete IMI white papers can be found at The publication and translation costs of the clinical summary was supported by donations from BHVI, ZEISS, EssilorLuxottica, CooperVision, Alcon, HOYA, Théa, and Oculus.


Nina Tahhan, James S. Wolffsohn, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Jost B. Jonas, Mark A. Bullimore, Ian Flitcroft, Lisa A. Ostrin, Christine Wildsoet, Serge Resnikoff; Editorial: International Myopia Institute White Paper Series 2023. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(6):1. doi:


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IMI White paper

The IMI White Paper for “IMI 2023 White Papers Introduction” is also available for download below:

Nina Tahhan, James S. Wolffsohn, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Jost B. Jonas, Mark A. Bullimore, Ian Flitcroft, Lisa A. Ostrin, Christine Wildsoet, Serge Resnikoff; Editorial: International Myopia Institute White Paper Series 2023. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2023;64(6):1. doi: